Essay on Power Crisis in India | Electricity Crisis in India

Essay on Power Crisis in India | Electricity Crisis in India

Technological advancement and growing population demands more electricity and the production of electricity is less as per demand which leads power crisis in India. Here we have written an essay on power crisis in India where I tried to include all important points which is relevant to issue of power crisis or electricity crisis. Hope you found this essay on power crisis in India helpful for your exam preparation.

Essay on Power Crisis in India | Electricity Crisis in India

Essay on Power Crisis in India

Recently, India witnessed acute power shortage due to higher demand and unavailability of adequate coal supplies. More than 100 million units of energy shortage noted during the month of April, 2022. States of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, UP, Bihar and MP were the most affected states.

India is second largest country in terms of population where uses of electricity is rising day by day. In today’s India, electricity has reached in the farflunged areas also and people getting benefits from it. Electricity plays an important role in overall development including technological development of the society and that of the country. However, technological development requires more electricity. Electricity need of many industries, railways, agriculture, and household uses is growing day by day.

The current demand of power is barely a little over half of India’s total installed power generation capacity of approximately 400 GW. However, due to unavailability of coals supplies these power shortage are witnessed. The shortage of coal supply occurs almost every year and despite various measures, India is not succeeded in overcoming the problem. To address the issue of power shortage underlying issues and structural problems are need to be shorted out and for the same the solution is to make sure coal power plants stockpile enough fuel. Download this  Essay in PDF: Click Here.

India's Coal Dependency for Power

As of September 2021, thermal power which include power generated from burning coal, gas and petroleum comprised 60% of India’s installed capacity in power generation. 210 GW of the total 396 GW Coal-based power generation capacity accounts for about 53% of India’s total power capacity as on March 2022. Presently about 20% of India's thermal coal requirements are imported.

Causes of the Power Crisis?

Advancement of the technology and revival of economic activities after Covid-19 disruptions propelled electricity demand. In April 2022, average daily energy requirement increased to 4,512 million units while it was 3,941 million units in April 2021 registering a 14.5% growth. Use of electricity in  many industries, railways, agriculture, and household are increased. The thermal power plants of India are also running much below their capability which could have managed this demand surge by ramping up thermal generation.

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Cash flow problem in the electricity sector is also one the reasons of power crisis. The inability of discoms to recover costs has resulted in huge outstanding dues to power generation companies. As a result power generation companies default on payments to Coal India Limited (CIL) which creates problem in coal supplies. This reflects both operational inefficiency and poor recovery of dues from consumers. Due to war in Ukraine international spot market coal prices have soared to over $400 a tonne from around $50 a tonne in 2020.

How power crisis can be addressed

To address the problem of power crisis in India, there is a need to change our planning and policies from one of primarily managing scarcity to one of flexible resiliency. Policies should be prepared focusing the long-term structural solutions that address distribution financial viability and a robust mechanism for resource planning.  Focus should be given to ensure that power plants work efficiently.

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A strategic approach to low-cost energy transition like renewable energy and opportunities for diversification in energy mix is crucial to address persisting power shortages. More focus should be given by ramping up production from renewable energy sources for long term power security.


As India's power demand is set to rise substantially and become more variable. It is time to act for the long-term resilience of India’s power sector. Renewable sources of power generation should be ramp up for production of electricity to fulfil the need of growing demand of power.

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